SOUTH AFRICA

“Hospitaal melk” – Is dit bruikbaar?

Dr Chris van Dijk

Die vraag of mastitis melk of melk van behandelde koeie aan kalwers gevoer kan word word baie keer gevra. Ek gee graag my opinie daaroor.

Die voedingstowwe wat aan kalwers gevoer word, word onder andere deur die ekonomie bepaal. In moeilike ekonomiese tye soos ons tans op melkplase ondervind is die versoeking altyd daar om “hospitaal melk” (dit is melk vanaf siek of behandelde koeie) aan kalwers te gee in plaas van ‘n duurder melkvervanger of “gesonde” melk.

Kalwers word gebore met baie min of geen sirkulerende teenliggaampies. Tot soveel as 40% van kalwers ontvang onvoldoende kolostrum (biesmelk) in die eerste 6 uur na geboorte en is dus vatbaar vir verskeie siekteveroorsakende organismes. Die gevolg hiervan is dat aansteeklike siektes een van die grootste redes is vir vrektes in jong kalwers.

Die kombinasie van ‘n onvolledige immuunstelsels in die jong kalf en die gebruik van hospitaal melk as ‘n goedkoop voedingsbron skep die ideale situasie vir groot probleme. Die volgende lys is maar ‘n paar van die moontlike organismes wat ‘n jong kalf kan inneem vanaf sogenaamde hospitaal melk:

  1. Salmonella sp
  2. E coli
  3. Stayphylococcus aureus
  4. Listeria monocytogenes
  5. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  7. Klebsiella sp.
  8. Streptococcus sp.
  9. Mycoplasma sp

Bogenoemde kan ‘n lang lys van siektesindrome soos longontsteking, diarree, breinvliesontsteking ensovoorts veroorsaak maar lei ook ongelukkig tot die dood van ‘n kalf.

Ek haal graag ‘n aantal artikels aan waar die outeurs spesifiek verwys na die effek van hospitaal melk op die jong kalf (vollledige verwysings en artikels op versoek beskikbaar)

Number of viable bacteria and presumptive antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves on commercial dairies – Selim, et al.

The authors examined waste milk (hospital milk) and milk replacers for the presence of bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, and  antibiotic residues.  The bacteria counts were highest in the hospital milk compared to colostrum, milk replacer and bulk tank milk.  The bacteria isolated from the samples included E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Aeromonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas, and Bacillus sp.

Feeding antibiotic-contaminated waste milk to calves—effects on physical performance and antibiotic sensitivity of gut flora. Wray, et al.

The authors used two trials that included feeding fermented and unfermented milk to calves.  Fecal E. coli were monitored for antibiotic resistance.  In one trial, the minimal inhibitory concentration for streptomycin was significantly higher for isolations from calves fed antibiotic-containing milk, but no differences were observed for ampicillin.  In another trial, the percentage of resistant E. coli and enterococci was examined.  No differences were observed between isolations from calves fed antibiotic-containing milk and the controls.

Economics of feeding pasteurized colostrum and pasteurized waste milk to dairy calves – Jamaluddin et al.

The authors report calves fed pasteurized colostrum and waste milk were worth an extra $8.13 in gross margin/calf, compared with calves fed nonpasteurized colostrum and waste milk.  Included in this “economic bottom line benefit” included a higher mean weight gain, lower mortality rate of calves, and calves that have fewer days in which they are affected with diarrhea and pneumonia.

Opsommend

Die gebruik om melk met antibiotika daarin aan kalwers te voer word ten strengste afgeraai. Daardie paar sent wat u spaar gaan dalk ‘n baie groter medisyne rekening of selfs ‘n dooie kalf op die einde beteken.

Disclaimer: Zoetis takes no responsibility for any claims that may arise from information contained in this information sheet. Individual situations may vary from location to location and it is recommended that you consult your veterinarian before any management or treatment decisions are implemented.

Vrywaring: Zoetis neem geen verantwoordelikheid vir enige eise wat mag voortspruit uit inligting vervat in hierdie inligtingsdokument. Individuele situasies varieer van plek tot plek en dit word voorgestel dat u eers u veearts kontak alvorens enige bestuurs- of behandelingsbesluite geïmplementeer word.